This is the third part in a series on the Repetition of history. The first part dealt with Europe and Ancient Greece and the second part with France and Athens.
We last left off:
The Delian League, the Aetolian League, and the Peloponnesian League gave way to the League of Nations, the United Nations, and the European Union. As Sparta and Athens interrupted their wars with a joint defense against Persia, France fought England for a Hundred Years, then united with it twice to repel an existential threat from a fellow nation on the Continent.
That threat was from Germans, who Durant tells us are the
new Macedonians. Philip II of Macedon systematically invaded city-states in
Attica--tribes in Illryia, Thessaly, Thrace, and Thebes, before uniting the
region under his rule (except for Athens' rival, Sparta) with the eventual
defeat of Athens. Twenty-three centuries later, Hitler invaded
In 200 BC,
That brings us to our third great comparison.
"We are the Romans," Durant said. "We are the Romans who imported Greek civilization; we imported European civilization."